Date of Award:


Document Type:


Degree Name:

Master of Science (MS)


Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Sciences

Department name when degree awarded

Food Science and Industries


C. A. Ernstrom


A stable low-fat water-in-oil emulsion was satisfactorily prepared from milk-fat under laboratory condition. The best product contained 40 per cent fat, 56.8-57.3 per cent water, 0.8 per cent sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, 0.7-1.2 per cent milk solids-non-fat, and 1.2 percent salt. The spread was prepared equally well from butter or high test cream. When the product was made from cream (containing 74 per cent milk-fat) it was necessary to convert most of the globular fat to free fat prior to forming an emulsion. Globular fat in cream was successfully changed to free fat by homogenization at 2500 pounds per square inch or by storing the cream at 5 centigrade for 24 hours. tHe free fat was shock cooled from 41 to 18 centigrade in a swept-surface heat exchanger to give a smooth velvety texture to the milk-fat. The solidified milk-fat was warmed to 22-24 centigrade and emulsified with water containing sodium carboxymethyl cellulose 7HF (manufactured by Hercules Incorporated) and salt. Color and flavoring were added during emulsification.