Date of Award:


Document Type:


Degree Name:

Master of Science (MS)


Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Sciences

Department name when degree awarded

Nutrition and Food Sciences

Committee Chair(s)

Deloy G. Hendricks


Deloy G. Hendricks


Arthur Mahoney


Stanley Allen


The objective of the study was to ascertain whether some infant formulas provide sufficient amounts of manganese and copper for adequate nutrition, Twelve piglets, within the first week of life, were divided by sex, litter and weight into two treatment groups. Both groups received concentrated Isomil a soy-based infant formula and distilled water ad libitum. Isomil was analyzed and found to contain 1.05ppm manganese and .98ppm copper. The supplemented group received an additional 30.6mg manganese and 6.76mg copper per can (388m1) of concentrated Isomil. Weight gains we re not significantly different. Manganese and copper levels were significantly greater in the livers of the supplemented group. The supplemented group also had significantly higher manganese and zinc in femurs. These were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

Serum copper and manganese were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer equipped with a graphite furnace. The supplemented group had a significantly higher serum manganese and copper at the end of the study than the unsupplemented group. Within a group, the unsupplemented group had a significantly higher serum manganese and the supplemented group had a significantly higher serum copper in week five versus week one.

No significant differences or lesions were found upon histopathological examination of spinal cord and rib tissue from the piglets.

Birth weight, two month and six month weight, and serum levels of copper and manganese from human infants fed breast milk versus Similac were studied. Serum copper was significantly greater at two months, and serum manganese was significantly greater at six months in the breast-fed infants.

Although no clinical deficiency symptoms were observed in the infant pigs, tissue levels were significantly decreased in the unsupplemented group. The significantly greater se rum copper and manganese levels of the breast-fed infants may be related to different bioavailability of these minerals from breast milk versus Similac or other infant formulas. Many marginal deficiencies probably go undetected. It is recommended that infant formulas contain a minimum concentration of manganese and copper which will provide infants of 0 - 6 months of age with .5 - .7mg/day, to meet the current estimated safe and adequate recommendations.



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