Date of Award:


Document Type:


Degree Name:

Master of Science (MS)


Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Sciences

Department name when degree awarded

Nutrition and Food Sciences

Committee Chair(s)

Barbara Prater


Barbara Prater


Bonita Wyse


To date there have been no complete reports of the nutrient intakes of persons with Type I diabetes mellitus who use continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) pumps. The purpose of this study was to describe the sample population and to determine the nutrient intake of adult Type I diabetics from the Salt Lake City, Utah area, who use CSII.

Seven male and 15 female CSII users, ages 25 to 53, completed a questionnaire and a three-day diet record as instructed. Diet records were coded and household measurements of foods were converted to gram weights for computerized nutrient analysis. Nutrient intake is reported as group mean and standard deviation for sex and age.

The average duration of diabetes was 17 years. The average length of CSII use was l.6 years. Review of the medical charts revealed that weight gain since beginning CSII averaged 5.5 pounds irrespective of the duration of pump use.

The dietary intake of protein, calcium, phosphorus, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B12 , and ascorbic acid met or exceeded the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for both men and women. For males, mean nutrient intakes were below the RDA for zinc (82.7%), folate (82.2%), and vitamin 86 (69.0%). For females, intakes were also below the RDA for zinc (64.0%), folate (58.3%), and vitamin 86 (69.0%), as well as for iron (58.5%) and magnesium (88.0%).

The average percent of kilocalories from protein, carbohydrate and fat, (approximately 17%, 43%, and 40%) was similar for both the males and females. The day-to-day variation in carbohydrate intake for both sexes was not significantly different. Intake of added sugar in the diet was 6.6% and 5.8% of total kilocalories (14.8% and 13.9% of the carbohydrate kilocalories) for males and females, respectively.

In conclusion, dietary intake for this small group of CSII users was adequate in most nutrients . Of concern is the apparent inadequate intakes of zinc, folate, vitamin s6 and iron for women, as compared to the current RDA standards. The distribution of kilocalories from protein, carbohydrate and fat approaches the 1979 recommendations by the American Diabetes Association. Weight gain may be a problem for some CSII pump users, and should be monitored.