Date of Award:


Document Type:


Degree Name:

Master of Science (MS)


Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Sciences

Department name when degree awarded

Nutrition and Food Sciences

Committee Chair(s)

Barbara M. Prater


Barbara M. Prater


David Turner


Noreen Schvaneveldt


This study described three days of dietary intake, physical activity, and glycemic control in 14 female and eight male adult diabetics using Continuos Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (CSII). Changes in weight after initiation of CSII were also described.

Dietary intakes were analyzed using the NUTREDFO computer program then compared to established standards. Both sexes had mean intakes of zinc, folate, vitamin B6, and magnesium below the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA, 1980) for age and sex. Female consumption of iron and total calories consumed were also below recommendations. When dietary intakes were analyzed on a nutrient per 1,000 kcal basis men had intakes of zinc and folate below recommended levels, but met suggested allowances for other nutrients. Women still had suboptimal intakes of zinc, folate, iron, and, to a lesser extent, vitamin B6 and magnesium.

Mean protein intake was within the recommendation range outlined by the American Diabetes Association (ADA, 1979), but above levels suggested in a 1987 (ADA) update. Intake of total fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, and cholesterol were above and carbohydrate was below recommended levels (ADA, 1987).

No significant differences between the mean dietary intake of an age and sex matched group of females from this study and the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II, 1983) were noted.

When variability in caloric and carbohydrate intake was examined no significant differences between days were found.

Mean energy expenditures were higher than estimated levels for the general population. Activities were often reported in fairly large blocks of time, thus changes in activity on a minute to minute basis nay not have been accurately described.

Mean blood glucose was near normal on all three days of the study. However, glycosylated hemoglobin levels, done within two months of the study period, were elevated in seven out of 18 subjects.

Weight gain is often reported after initiation of CSII. The women in this study showed a net increase of 3.13 lbs after changing to CSII. However, men lost an average of 1.79 lbs after starting pump therapy.

To the extent that this population is indicative of CSII users as a whole it was concluded that education, directed at increasing dietary intake of foods rich in zinc, folate, magnesium, and vitamin B6 for both sexes and iron intake for females, would be beneficial. Information on appropriate ways to comply with the dietary recommendations of the ADA (1987) and to offset the weight gain often associated with CSII may also be useful to the pump wearer.