Date of Award:

1987

Document Type:

Thesis

Degree Name:

Master of Science (MS)

Department:

Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Sciences

Department name when degree awarded

Nutrition and Food Sciences

Advisor/Chair:

Deloy G. Hendricks

Abstract

Protein quality in freeze-dried skimmilk (SM), regular cottage cheese (RCC), retentate (Ret) and cottage cheese made from ultrafiltrated skimmilk (UFCC) were evaluated by chemical (amino acid score) and biological methods. Biological evaluation was at 5, 8 and 11% protein level in growing rats by measuring biological value (BV), net protein utilization (NPU) and nitrogen efficiency for growth (NEG) over a 14-day period. A 28-day protein efficiency ratio (PER) was determined on the same products at 10% protein level. Effects of added lactose on PER of retentate, regular and UFCC were also evaluated. The most limiting amino acids were cystine + methionine. Amino acid score for Animal Nutrition Research Council (ANRC) reference casein, SM, RCC, Ret and UFCC was 0.72, 0.91, 0.87, 0.91 and 0.98 respectively according to Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) pattern and 0.45, 0.56, 0.54, 0.57 and 0.61 respectively according to whole egg pattern. PER was 2.7, 3.0, 2.7, 3.1 and 2.8 for ANRC reference casein, SM, RCC, Ret and UFCC respectively. PER for retentate and skimmilk were significantly different from the cottage cheese. No significant difference in protein quality was obtained when the products were fed at 5, 8 and 11% levels. Average BV was 93, 91, 91, 95 and 94 for ANRC reference casein, SM, RCC, Ret and UFCC respectively. Average NPU was 87, 84, 83, 85 and 85 for ANRC reference casein, SM. RCC, Ret and UFCC respectively. Average NEG values were 66, 73, 70 77 and 73 for ANRC reference casein, SM, RCC, Ret and UFCC respectively. PER values were 2.7, 3.0, 2.7, 3.1 and 2.8 for ANRC reference casein, SM, RCC, Ret and UFCC respectively. Addition of lactose to a level equal to that in skimmilk reduced the PER value of RCC, Ret and UFCC by about 4%, 6% and 4% respectively. Though no significant difference in protein quality of the products were obtained, there was a tendency of ultrafiltration to increase protein quality.

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