Effects of Whey Protein Concentrate, Phosphate, and Sodium Hydroxide On Texture and Acceptability of Turkey and Beef Rolls
Processed turkey rolls were prepared with 1 or 3% whey protein concentrates WPC-50 (pH=5. 8 0) , WPC-60 (pH=4. 53) and WPC-75 (pH=6.85) containing 50, 60 and 75% protein along with controls (phosphate and no phosphate) . Control rolls made with 0.5% phosphate had the highest bind strength, and sensory evaluation scores. Only WPC-75 (1%) was acceptable as a binding agent and flavor enhancer. WPC-60 reduced pink discoloration of rolls, but flavor, bind and cohesiveness scores were unacceptably low. WPC-50 was not an effective binding agent. In general, rolls made with 3% WPC had lower scores for intensity of turkey flavor.
Bind strength and sensory characteristics were compared for restructured beef rolls formulated with 1% salt, 0.375% sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) or 0.07% sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and 5, 10 or 20% added water. Controls also had 1% x salt, but no STPP or NaOH. Relative bind strength of rolls was STPP > NaOH > controls. Addition of 20% water reduced bind strength. Cooked yield, moisture content, beef flavor and texture of NaOH rolls were similar to STPP rolls. Bind strength and cohesiveness of NaOH rolls were lower than STPP rolls, but still acceptable.
For measuring bind strength of turkey and beef rolls, a sensitive and inexpensive penetrometer was developed. It was equipped with a top-loading balance, accessories, IBM-compatible personal computer and Quick-Basic program that allowed continuously collected penetration force data. at specific time intervals. Penetrometer bind strength and taste panel cohesiveness of turkey and beef rolls were highly correlated (r=0.89 and r=0.93, respectively).