Date of Award:


Document Type:


Degree Name:

Master of Science (MS)


Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Sciences

Department name when degree awarded

Nutrition and Food Sciences

Committee Chair(s)

Donald J. McMahon


Donald J. McMahon


Paul Savello


Charles E. Carpenter


Pasteurized skim milk was acidified using glucono-δ-lactone (GDL) at 10, 20, 30, and 40°C or with 1.2% freeze-dried yogurt starter culture at 40°C. Milk coagulation was followed by measuring turbidity, curd firmness, particle size, and casein micelle microstructural changes using transmission electron microscopy .

The pH of milk was gradually lowered during acidification with GDL or starter culture. Acidification rate showed greater influence on turbidity change at 10°C than at 20, 30, or 40°C.

Average casein micelle size increased with decreasing temperature. The patterns of average micelle size versus pH were not affected by temperature. No great variation of average micelle size was observed above pH 5.2. Below pH 5.0 the size increased exponentially as the milk gelled. Acidification rate did not influence average micelle size at 10°C. Acidification rate, types of acidifying agents, and temperature had no effect on the Formagraph gelation pH and the rate at which curd firmness developed.

Casein micelles became less compact and less distinct with decreasing temperature before acidification. As pH was lowered, protein was dissociated from and then reassociated with casein micelles. Acidification rate had no effect on microstructure change of casein micelles at 10°C.