Date of Award:


Document Type:


Degree Name:

Master of Science (MS)


Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Sciences

Department name when degree awarded

Nutrition and Food Sciences

Committee Chair(s)

Conly L. Hansen


Conly L. Hansen


Paul Savello


Clair Batty


Skim milk was ultrafiltered to three lactose/protein ratios and spray dried. The skim milk powder was extruded with pearled corn starch at different moisture contents, protein contents, lactose/protein ratios, and feed rates (control variables). Response surface methodology and a central composite in cube experimental design were used. This design required 30 experimental runs with 16 factorial points, 8 axial points, and 6 center points for replication. The physical and functional properties evaluated were expansion ratio, product temperature, bulk density, color, shear stress, viscosity, and water absorption index (response variables). Scanning electron microscopy was done to evaluate the microstructural attributes of the extrudates.

A quadratic model was used to express the response variables in terms of the control variables. Response surfaces were generated by assigning center point values to 2 of the 4 control variables and then solving the fitted equations as a quadratic in the remaining 2 control variables.

An increase in moisture content decreased expansion ratio, product temperature, color, and water absorption index, and increased bulk density, shear stress, and viscosity. An increase in protein content decreased product temperature, shear stress, viscosity, and water absorption index, increased color, and had no effect on expansion ratio and bulk density. An increase in lactose/protein ratio decreased product temperature, viscosity, and water absorption index, and had no effect on expansion ratio, bulk density, color, and shear stress. Feed rate did not have significant individual effect on any response variable. Expansion ratio had a negative correlation with bulk density (r = -0.61) and shear stress (r = -0.62) and a positive correlation with product temperature (r = 0.52). Bulk density and shear stress were positively correlated (r = 0.69), and product temperature and water absorption index were positively correlated too (r = 0.81). Expansion ratio, bulk density, color, and shear stress were chosen to determine a combined set of extrusion conditions most likely to produce an extrudate with properties suitable for a snack-type product.



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