Date of Award:

1994

Document Type:

Thesis

Degree Name:

Master of Science (MS)

Department:

Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Sciences

Department name when degree awarded

Nutrition and Food Science

Advisor/Chair:

Deloy G. Hendricks

Abstract

Seven chromium-containing complexes were tested for effects on blood glucose regulation, serum cholesterol levels, serum triglyceride levels, and body composition. The compounds included Cr picolinate, Cr chelidonate, chromate, Cr chelidamate, Cr arginate, nichrome, and Cr chloride.

The study was divided into two major sections, a rat study and a chicken study. In the rat study all seven chromium-containing complexes were tested. They were administered to the rats in four different testing periods at 1 ppm, 5 ppm, and 25 ppm of chromium. Methods of administration varied for each testing period. After the chromium compounds were administered, a glucose tolerance test (GTT) was conducted on the rats in each of the four experiments. No consistent, significant findings were observed in blood glucose or insulin levels or in blood glucose or insulin change during the GTI. Tissue and blood samples were collected at the end of the study. Liver tissue weights were significantly reduced as the level of chromium supplementation increased. A similar trend was noted in the epididymal fat pad weight, but was not statistically significant.

In the chicken study the partitioning effects of Cr picolinate, chromate, Cr chelidamate, Cr arginate, nichrome, and Cr chloride were more closely examined. The chickens were supplemented at 3, 15, and 75 ppm for 8 weeks. No beneficial effects from the supplementation were noted in feed efficiency, total intake, fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, HDL and total cholesterol levels, or serum triglycerides. At the end of 3 weeks the birds supplemented at 3 ppm were heavier than the other treatment birds. At the end of the 8 weeks the birds were sectioned into primal cuts and weighed. No beneficial effects of chromium supplementation were noted in any of the cuts when expressed as a raw weight, percent of dressed weight, or percent of live bird weight. Kidney chromium levels were significantly increased as the level of chromium supplementation increased in the picolinate-, arginate-, and chelidamate-treated groups. Chromium chloride-, picolinate-, arginate-, and chelidamate-treated groups all showed significant increases in liver chromium levels as the level of chromium supplementation increased.

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