Date of Award:

1994

Document Type:

Thesis

Degree Name:

Master of Science (MS)

Department:

Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Sciences

Department name when degree awarded

Nutrition and Food Sciences

Advisor/Chair:

Deloy G. Hendricks

Abstract

Dairy products are important sources of calcium and other nutrients but are a poor source of dietary iron. Cheese comprises a substantial portion of dairy food consumption and has been determined an appropriate medium for iron-fortification. However, iron may promote the potentially harmful process in food and biological systems known as lipid peroxidation. Therefore, the safety of consuming iron-fortified cheese was examined.

Commercial-scale batches of Cheddar cheese were iron-fortified to a level of two milligrams of iron per ounce with either ferric chloride, ferric-casein complex, or ferric-whey protein complex. Fifty-four premenopausal females were divided into three treatment groups and supplemented one and one-half ounces of iron-fortified Cheddar cheese into their normal diet on a daily basis for six consecutive weeks. Lipid peroxidation was measured as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in serum, urine, and feces. A significant increase in serum thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances occurred in all treatment groups sixteen days after initiation of iron-fortified cheese consumption. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in serum returned to baseline levels after thirty days of iron-fortified cheese consumption. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in serum, urine, and feces did not differ among iron-fortification methods.

Average daily intake of iron during the six weeks of iron-fortified cheese consumption significantly increased above baseline intake levels without cheese by the approximate amount of iron fortified into the cheese. Increased dietary iron intakes were not correlated with increased lipid peroxidation as measured by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in serum, urine, or feces.

These results indicated that the daily consumption of iron-fortified cheese increased dietary iron intake and produced a transient increase in lipid peroxidation as measured by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in human serum.

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