Date of Award:


Document Type:


Degree Name:

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Sciences

Department name when degree awarded

Nutrition and Food Sciences

Committee Chair(s)

Daren P. Cornforth


Daren P. Cornforth


Donald J. McMahon


Donald V. Sisson


Von T. Mendenhall


Charles E. Carpenter


Charlotte P. Brennand


Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of milk solids on restructured and emulsified turkey rolls. the milk solids used were nonfat dry milk (NFDM), whey protein concentrate (WPC), and calcium caseinate (CC). Turkey rolls consisted of 100% breast meat or 90:10 or 70:30 breast-to-thigh, salt (1%), water (10%), internal or cluster fat (10%), and 3% of various milk solids (WPC, NFDM, CC).

The objectives of these studies were to 1) determine which ratio between light and dark meat is preferred; 2) determine which of milk solids evaluated will permit the highest level of dark meat incorporation into evaluated products; 3) determine if there is a mechanism by which milk proteins lighten poultry meat; and 4) determine which milk protein produces the best bind between meat pieces. Panelists were used in the first study to evaluate cooked meat attributes of color intensity, color uniformity, cohesiveness, tenderness, roasted turkey flavor, juiciness, and overall acceptability. The attributes were rated on a seven-point scale. Rolls made with WPC or NFDM scored significantly higher for color uniformity, cohesiveness, roasted turkey flavor, and overall acceptability than rolls made with CC. No differences were noted among treatments for juiciness or toughness with rolls of the same light-to-dark meat ratio. However, the 90:10 rolls were rated significantly more tender than the rolls made with the 70:30 ratio. Rolls containing milk solids had significantly higher yields than the controls.

In the second study, rolls were made using the preferred meat ratio (90:10 breast:thigh meat). NFDM and WPC were used as binders, but not CC, since in the first study it was an ineffective binding agent. The second study showed that no whitening or lightening occurred in turkey rolls. This researcher also found that both NFDM and WPC increased bind strength between meat pieces. Controls made without added milk solids had less bind strength between the meat particles. Meat particle size also affected bind strength in finished products, with finely chopped rolls having higher bind strength than coarsely ground rolls. Moreover, the second study had unexpected results indicating that NFDM will prevent development of pink discoloration during refrigerated storage. The penetrometer used for bind measurements is described.



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