Date of Award:


Document Type:


Degree Name:

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Sciences

Department name when degree awarded

Nutrition and Food Science


Deborah Gustafson


Achieving and maintaining maximal peak bone mass is critical to the prevention of osteoporosis. Adequate calcium intake during youth is a major aspect of proper bone mass development. Because of the importance of calcium, a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) that estimates calcium intake of 10- to 18-year-old Asian, Hispanic, and white youth living in the western United States was developed. This new FFQ was shown to accurately and reliably estimate calcium intake of these youth. Accuracy among Hispanics, however, was low and requires further evaluation. A second study examined intake of calcium, milk, and non-milk beverages of Hispanic and non-Hispanic white children aged 10 to 11 years and 15 to 18 years living in Utah. Milk fat percentage and source of beverage procurement were considered. Studies assessing the intake of calcium, calcium-rich foods, and foods that may interfere with calcium intake of youth in the United States were reviewed.