Date of Award:


Document Type:


Degree Name:

Master of Science (MS)




Kenneth A. Kiewra


A study was conducted in which both notetaking and review were systematically varied in order to examine viii eighth-grade student's notetaking and performance behaviors. Three formats of notes (Matrix, skeletal, conventional) were examined in combination with three notetaking strategies (take notes/review own notes, take notes/review expert notes, listen/review expert notes) to form nine conditions. Subjects viewed a videotaped lecture, reviewed their respective set of notes, and were administered the following performance tests: structured recall, factual recognition, application, and synthesis. The number of ideas, number of words, and an efficiency calculation was obtained for each notetaking protocol. Results indicated that subjects reviewing a matrix format outperformed those reviewing a skeletal outline format on the application test, a higher-order measure. Subjects recorded an average of less than 30% of the total lecture ideas, and females recorded significantly more words and ideas than did males. Females also outperformed males on tests of structured recall and factual recognition. Speculation was that females' more complete product of notes contributed to their higher performance on the factual-ordered tests. Their performance was not significantly different from males' on the higher-ordered tests.



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