Date of Award:


Document Type:


Degree Name:

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Sciences

Committee Chair(s)

Karin Allen


Karin Allen


Brain Nummer


Silvana Martini


Marie Walsh


Sean Johnson


In industry, antioxidants are added to prevent changes that affect quality due to oxidation, such as the development of off flavors, unacceptable odors and discoloration. New resources that are familiar to consumers and may work as antioxidants should be studied.

The changes in antioxidant activity were determined for four freeze-dried native wild berry powder species in Utah, including skunkbush (Rhus trilobata), chokecherry (Prunus virginiana), river hawthorn (Crataegus douglasii) and silver buffaloberry (Shepherdia argentea), during cold storage (-20 °C) for 6 months. The total antioxidant activity was stable in most of the berry powders during the six months of frozen storage. Overall the river hawthorn and buffaloberry contained the highest antioxidant activity values, which indicated that they would be more efficient for use as food antioxidants.

The effectiveness of two different levels of native Utah river hawthorn and buffaloberry freeze-dried powders in maintaining the quality of ground poultry and ground beef was studied. Meat patties mixed with berry powders were held at 4 °C and analyzed every three days for two weeks. The river hawthorn berry and silver buffaloberry delayed the undesirable changes in flavor or color caused by the oxygen present in the air in both chicken and beef ground patties. However, the plant pigments in the silver buffaloberry increased the redness of chicken patties. Neither berry significantly changed the color of ground beef patties or changed the microbial growth in ground meats. Overall, both river hawthorn and buffaloberry are suitable for using in ground beef product as antioxidants.

Milk mineral and sodium tripolyphosphate are antioxidants that could bind free metal ions into insoluble or inactive forms. They can delay the changes of the meat pigment and maintain color in meat products. The purpose of the third study was to examine the effect antioxidants on meat pigment.pH describes the amounts of acid in food. Slowed color changes in the poultry meat pigment with antioxidants was seen both at the pH of living poultry muscle (7.2) and the pH of raw poultry meat (pH 6.0). This suggested that addition of metal-binding antioxidants like milk mineral or sodium tripolyphosphate could help preserve poultry meat pigment and maintain the color of poultry products.



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