Date of Award:
Master of Science (MS)
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
Three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D ICs) have been designed with the purpose of achieving higher communication speed by reducing the interconnect length between integrated circuits, and integrating heterogeneous functions into one single package, among other advantages. As a growing, new technology, researchers are still studying the different parameters that impact the overall lifetime of such packages in order to ensure the customer receives reliable end products. This study focused on the effect of four design parameters on the lifetime of the interconnects and, in particular, solder balls and through-silicon vias (TSVs). These parameters included TSV pitch, TSV diameter, underfill stiffness and underfill thickness. A three-dimensional finite element model of a 3D IC package was built in ANSYS to analyze the effect of these parameters under thermo-mechanical cyclic loading. The stresses and damage in the interconnects of the IC were evaluated using Coffin-Manson and the energy partitioning fatigue damage models. A three-level Taguchi design of experiment method was utilized to evaluate the effect of each parameter. Minitab software was used to assess the main effects of the selected design parameters. Locations of maximum stresses and possible damage initiation were discussed, and recommendations were made to the manufacturer for package optimization.
Due to the very small scale of the interconnects, conducting mechanical tests and measuring strains in small microscopic scale material is very complicated and challenging; therefore, it is very difficult to validate finite element and analytical analysis of stress and strain in microelectronic devices. At the next step of this work, a new device and method were proposed to facilitate testing and strain measurements of material at microscopic scale.
This new micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) consisted of two piezoelectric members that were constrained by a rigid frame and that sandwiched the test material. These two piezoelectric members act as load cell and strain measurement sensors. As the voltage is applied to the first member, it induces a force to the specimen and deforms it, which in turn deforms the second piezoelectric member. The second piezoelectric member induces an output voltage that is proportional to its deformation. Therefore, the strain and stresses in the test material can be determined by knowing the mechanical characteristics of the piezoelectric members. Advantages of the proposed system include ease of use, particularly at microscopic scale, adaptability to measure the strain of different materials, and flexibility to measure the modulus of elasticity for an unknown material. An analytical analysis of the device and method was presented, and the finite element simulation of the device was accomplished. The results were compared and discussed. An inelastic specimen was also analyzed and sensitivity of the device to detecting nonlinear behavior was evaluated. A characteristic curve was developed for the specific geometry and piezoelectric material.
Rodriguez, Omar, "Thermo-Mechanical Reliability of Micro-Interconnects in Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuits: Modeling and Simulation" (2010). All Graduate Theses and Dissertations. 737.
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