Date of Award:


Document Type:


Degree Name:

Master of Science (MS)


Human Development and Family Studies

Department name when degree awarded

Home Economics and Consumer Education

Committee Chair(s)

Ann C. Deegan


Ann C. Deegan


Jeanette J. Arbuthnot


Carol J. Loveland


Forty-three Pueblo III sandals and sandal fragments from four sites in Tsegi Canyon, Arizona, were analyzed to develop tie terminology, identify possible correlation of tie system to sandal construction, and identify characteristics for future tie research. Each piece of sandal tie cordage was analyzed for tie system type, tie attachment method, and tie cordage structure.

Three overall tie systems were found: toe-heel tie systems (nine sandals), criss-cross tie system (one sandal), and side loop tie systems (fifteen sandals) Five additional sandals (narrow, two-warp plainweave construction) had possible toe-heel tie systems. Tie systems of six sandals were not distinguishable between toe-heel and criss-cross. Five sandals had unidentifiable tie fragments, and two sandals had no tie information.

Terminology had to be developed for several tie components. Toe loops were found with a single loop (either intact or tied over the toe) and multiple loops (overlapping, adjacent, or parallel). Side loops were overlapping (continuous, mirror image, or reversing), adjacent, and parallel. Ankle/heel loops included single, double, and double intertwined horizontal loops (back of heel), and two vertical loops (side of heel). Loop variations for two-warp plainweave were through weft, around weft, flat loop, and upright loop. Numerous attachment methods were used for the toe, ankle/heel, and side loops, including sole knots and running stitches.

Tie materials included four constructions of leaf: unprocessed leaf, S-twist leaf, Z-twist leaf, and plied leaf (Z-2S, S-2Z, Z-3S). Twelve constructions of yarn were identified, including two- and three-ply yarns of various twist combinations, re-plied yarn, and splicing. Toe-heel and criss-cross tie system sandals tended to have only one cordage type used on an individual sandal; side loop system sandals tended to have several cordage types used on an individual sandal.

A comparison of tie system and sandal construction methods revealed that coarse-braided and two-warp plainweave sandals more frequently used the toe-heel system. Fine-braided and four-and five-warp plainweave sandals used the toe-heel and side loop systems nearly evenly.

Markers for future tie researchers to examine include number of toe loops, types and attachment methods of toe and side loops, and style variations and attachments of ankle/heel loops.