Date of Award:


Document Type:


Degree Name:

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Sciences

Committee Chair(s)

Silvana Martini


Silvana Martini


Karin Allen


Robert E. Ward


Sulaiman Martarneh


Tadd Truscott


Partially hydrogenated oils (PHOs) provide desired texture, stability, and extended shelf life in food products. These types of lipids have been commonly used in food industry. However, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) decided to remove generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status of PHOs in 2015 due to the association between PHOs and coronary heart disease (CHD), type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases. Hence, it is necessary to find alternative new healthy lipids or novel processing conditions that can be used to replace the functionality of PHO. Among the processing methods to be used in alternative PHOs fats, high-intensity ultrasound (HIU) has been studied to change physical properties of several lipids, including palm kernel oil (PKO), palm oil, cocoa butter, and anhydrous milk fat (AMF) in out laboratory. However, application of HIU is associated with generating high energy (temperature, pressure, etc.) into the samples and oxidation in lipids has been a concern among researchers using HIU.

Moreover, long-term storage effects of sonicated lipids have not been evaluated yet, and more studies are required to use of HIU on various edible lipids. Therefore, in this study, HIU was used to change the physical properties of interesterified soybean oil (IESBO), all-purpose shortening (APS), and fish oil with low contents of saturated fatty acids (structure lipids, SLs). The result from this research indicated that the application of HIU increased hardness, elasticity, and solid fat content in the sonicated lipids without affecting oxidative stability of the samples. In addition, this research showed that changes in physical properties obtained from sonication did not change during storage. During sonication, bubbles are formed in the system, and although these bubbles are responsible for changes in the physical properties, this research has shown that these bubble events are not the only factors that affect the crystallization behavior of fats. Overall, this research shows that HIU can be used as potential processing tool to develop alternative PHOs.