Date of Award:


Document Type:


Degree Name:

Educational Specialist (EdS)




Donna Gilbertson


The implementation of schoolwide positive behavioral support (SWPBS) programs is becoming increasingly common in schools across the nation. Although a primary assumption of SWPBS is that schoolwide administration of positive supports to students who meet behavioral expectations will result in fewer behavior problems, surprisingly few studies have investigated the effects of various positive reinforcement rates (RR) on office discipline referral rates (ODR). This study investigated the relationship between RRs and ODRs among schools (N = 44) implementing SWPBS programs with high fidelity. Results revealed no significant differences in RRs or ODRs between Title I and non-Title I schools but did reveal a significant difference in the ratio of RRs to ODRs between the top and bottom ODR quartile schools. Overall, RRs were slightly associated with a decrease in ODRs. Results also suggested schools did not appropriately respond to schoolwide RR and ODR data. The present status of SWPBS data collection and utilization procedures is presented and practical implications are discussed.


This work made publicly available electronically on February 14, 2011.