Date of Award:


Document Type:


Degree Name:

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Instructional Technology and Learning Sciences


Mimi Recker


This research examined teachers' online behaviors while using a digital library service--the Instructional Architect (IA)--through three consecutive studies. In the first two studies, a statistical model called latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to cluster different groups of IA teachers according to their diverse online behaviors. The third study further examined relationships between teachers' demographic characteristics and their usage patterns. Several user clusters emerged from the LCA results of Study I. These clusters were named isolated islanders, lukewarm teachers, goal-oriented brokerswindow shoppers, key brokers, beneficiaries, classroom practitioners, and dedicated sticky users. In Study II, a cleaning process was applied to the clusters discovered in Study I to further refine distinct user groups. Results revealed three clusters, key brokers, insular classroom practitioners, and ineffective islanders. In Study III, the integration of teacher demographic profiles with clustering results revealed that teaching experience and technology knowledge affected teachers' effectiveness in using the IA. The implication, contributions, and limitation of this research are discussed.


This work made publicly available electronically on April 11, 2011.