Date of Award:


Document Type:


Degree Name:

Master of Science (MS)


Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Sciences

Committee Chair(s)

Silvana Martini


Silvana Martini


Daren Cornforth


Robert Ward


Flavor lexicons are used in sensory evaluation to determine the flavor profile of a food product. The objective of this study was to develop a flavor lexicon for cooked beef, which can then be used in various projects relating to beef quality such as studies investigating animal diet, marinating, ageing, or other enhancements. A descriptive panel of 10 people was used to develop a flavor lexicon of 18 attributes, including astringent, barny, bloody, brothy, browned, gamey, grassy, juicy, fatty, livery, metallic, oxidized, roast beef, and the five basic tastes (bitter, salty, sour, sweet, and umami). In contrast to other studies on beef, this lexicon was developed to include both positive and negative attributes. The lexicon was able to show that rib eye steaks from the Longissimus dorsi muscle in grass-fed animals were significantly (pSpinalis dorsi (or “cap” muscle) of the rib eye steak, with similar results. Additionally, descriptive and consumer evaluations found no difference between two types of grass diets, namely alfalfa and sainfoin. Different mixtures of beef and chicken were also evaluated to determine flavor differences between the two meats. Chicken was found to be more closely correlated to brothy, juicy, sweet, and umami, among others, while beef was found to be more closely correlated to terms such as gamey, bloody, oxidized, metallic, roast beef, and astringent. Throughout these tests, the newly developed lexicon was shown to be an effective tool for profiling fresh meat samples.




This work made publicly available electronically on May 11, 2011.

Included in

Food Science Commons