Date of Award:


Document Type:


Degree Name:

Master of Science (MS)


Electrical and Computer Engineering

Committee Chair(s)

Greg Droge


Greg Droge


Jacob Gunther


Burak Sarsilmaz


With an increasing adoption of Battery Electric Bus (BEB) fleets, developing a reliable charging schedule is vital to a successful migration from their fossil fuel counterparts. In this work, a BEB charging scheduling framework that considers fixed route schedules, multiple charger types, and battery dynamics is modeled as a Mixed Integer Linear Program (MILP). The MILP is modeled after the Berth Allocation Problem (BAP) in a modified form known as the Position Allocation Problem (PAP). The optimization coordinates BEB charging to ensure that each vehicle remains above a specified charge percentage. The model also minimizes the total number of chargers utilized and prioritizes slow charging for battery health. The model validity is demonstrated with a set of routes and is compared to a heuristic algorithm based on charge thresholds referred to as the Qin-Modified method.

The MILP approach is then further extended via a Simulated Annealing (SA) implementation. The framework maintains the same considerations and while further developing a method to minimize the peak power use (demand cost). Two mechanisms are implemented for the SA algorithm denoted as the “quick” and “heuristic” implementations, respectively. The model validity is demonstrated by utilizing a set of routes sampled form the Utah Transit Authority (UTA) and comparing the results two other models: the MILP approach and the Qin-Modified. The MILP is utilized as a baseline as it is formulated in a way that can guarantee optimality. The results presented show that the “heuristic” approach was able to generate a solution comparable to that of the MILP over a similar execution times. The SA PAP framework is further extended to incorporate non-linear battery dynamics to further increase the accuracy of the SOC model during a BEBs charging phase.



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License