Food Structure


The development of microstructure in natural set-style nonfat yoghurt was stud i ed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition to thin-sectioning and conventional SEM described in the literature, this review illustrates gelation of milk with micrographs obtai ned by rotary shadowing of casein micelles and their clusters. The existence of void spaces occupied by lactic acid bacteria in yoghurt was con finned by cold-stage SEM of uncoa ted specimens. The microstructure of yoghurt is affected by the preheat treatment of milk, bacterial starter cultures, total solids content , and the presence of thickening agents. The microstructure was found to be related to firnmess and susceptibility to syneresis . Suggestions on the preparation of yoghurt samples for electron microscopy have been included in this review.