Food Structure


Four experiments were conducted to assess the sensory textural properties, consumer acceptability and instrumental-sensory correlates of flaked and formed beef steaks. In Experiment 1, the effects of additions of NaCI, TPP and soy isolate on the texture of steaks were examined using a trained texture profile panel, and the texture of these steaks was compared to that of intact muscle (ribeye) steaks. Results showed large differences between the flaked and formed samples and the ribeye steak, as contrasted to small differences among the flaked and formed samples treated with different levels of NaCI, TPP and/or soy isolate.

In Experiments 2 and 3 the effect of flake size on the texture of flaked and formed beef was examined . In Experiment 2, instrumental shear data and SEM data were col lected and compared to the sensory data. In Experiment 3, a comparison was made of the texture of these products to both ribeye steak and ground beef patties. Systematic differences in a variety of textural attributes were observed as a function of flake-size. In general, the smallest flake-size produced a texture most like ground beef, whereas certain intermediate and large flake sizes produced a texture most like whole muscle steak. Simple and multiple linear regression equations were established between sensory and shear stress measures on these steaks, and these data, combined with the SEM data, suggested that tenderization of these meats is attributable to mechanical disruption of the tissue and not to an enzymatic process.

In Experiment 4, a consumer test was conducted to assess the effect of flake -size on the acceptability of flaked and formed steaks, and to assess consumer perception of the similarity of the texture of these products to other beef products. Although few significant differences in the acceptability of the flaked and formed products were observed, maximal acceptability ratings were found for the intermediate flake sizes. In addition, it was found that consumers do not associate the texture of flaked and formed steaks with any one of a variety of traditional beef products.

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