Cake flours treated with different levels of chlorine were evaluated by use in a Kissell cake formulation. Flour particle size distributions varied with chlorination level, but pH and specific gravity of the batters did not differ. Batter viscosity differences were observed at specific temperatures during heating of total batters. Temperature profiles differed positionally in the cakes, but these patterns of heat penetration were not related to level of chlorine treatment. However, water loss rates differed depending on the level of chlorine treatment indicating a more pronounced effect of chlorination level on the water loss characteristics of the cakes during the baking process than on the temperature profiles. The largest cake volume, contour deviations, and least shrinkage from the pan sides occurred with a 0.93 g Cl2/kg flour treatment (commercial level). The SEM micrographs on crumb showed larger starch particles with more continuous and extensive matrix development between starch particles as chlorine level increased . The aforementioned characteristics prior, during, and after baking were related to factors contributing to optimal cake structure.
Grider, J.; Davis, E. A.; and Gordon, J.
"Evaluation of Selected Properties of Chlorinated Wheat Flours in a Lean Cake Formulation,"
Food Structure: Vol. 2
, Article 5.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/foodmicrostructure/vol2/iss2/5