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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs when external forces cause the brain to move rapidly within the skull, resulting in an alteration of brain function. Following the initial injury, a cascade of cellular events known as the secondary injury reduces cerebral energy production and exacerbates pathological consequences. Conditions that close the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) provide effective treatment for TBI by restoring ionic balance and coupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to ATP production. mPTP closure can be achieved during ketosis when the body metabolizes ketone bodies over glucose as a primary fuel source. Administration of exogenous ketones achieves therapeutic levels of ketosis more quickly and more effectively than fasting or ketogenic diets. No studies to date have evaluated the effectiveness of exogenous ketones in treating TBI in humans. This project will evaluate current scientific literature regarding the role of ketones in TBIs and identify potential future approaches to using ketones as a therapy for TBI.

Publication Date



Logan, UT


restore, energy, deficit, traumatic, brain, injuries, effective


Medicine and Health Sciences

Restoring Energy Deficits in Traumatic Brain Injuries: A Key to Effective Treatment