A modelling effort using POP-II software was presented to show the effects of altering the harvest structure of the reduction. The relatively high harvests of the last two years may result in maintaining the current Park population levels. A variety of scenarios increasing the number and proportion of cows harvested show the greater effects cow harvests have on reducing the population relative to bull harvests.
United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, "Jackson Hole Cooperative Elk Studies Group, Grand Teton National Park, 1995 Annual Report" (1995). Wildlife Conservation and Management. Paper 10.