Brittney Lamb

Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Communicative Disorders and Deaf Education


Kristina M. Blaiser


Acoustics are particularly important to consider when assessing the speech production of young children with hearing loss who use listening and spoken language as their main communication modality. Even though standardized assessments, such as the Goldman-Fristoe test of Articulation-2nd Edition (GFTA-2: Goldman & Fristoe, 2000), are appropriate speech production measures for children with hearing loss, they are not designed to facilitate interpretation related to a child’s access to acoustic information (e.g., Flipsen & Connor, 2004; Ertmer, 2010; Flipsen 2011). The Acoustic Monitoring Protocol (AMP; Blaiser & Lamb, 2012) was created to be used with the GFTA-2 Sounds in Words subsection to provide supplemental acoustic information. The GFTA-2 in conjunction with the AMP was administered to 18 children with hearing loss who attended Sound Beginnings Preschool. Three patterns were defined: frequency-based errors, phonological and articulatory errors and developmental errors.