Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Economics and Finance


Tyler Brough


Leveraged and Inverse Leveraged ETFs were introduced in the summer of 2006 and have been becoming popular ever since. They became extremely popular during the nancial crisis of 2008 and that made them the obvious scapegoat taking the blame for the increase in volatility during that period. This paper examines how the S & P 500 market quality dened in terms of liquidity, volatility and eciency was aected after the introduction of 2x and 3x leveraged and inverse leveraged ETFs. I nd that after the introduction of the 2x leveraged and inverse leveraged ETFs, the market volatility decreased while the market liquidity and eciency improved. After the introduction of the 3x leveraged and inverse leveraged ETFs, the market quality as a whole improved.

Included in

Economics Commons