Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Health, Physical Education, and Recreation


Dennis Dolny


Aquatic training has become more prevalent as a means of training power, and provides unique features such as buoyancy and inflicting less stress on the body than traditional land based training. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess absolute and relative peak propulsive and mean power in loaded countermovement jumps (CMJ) performed on land and in water in Division I soccer players and gymnasts. Methods: Twenty-four Utah State University soccer players (N=12) and gymnasts (N=12) performed randomized countermovement jumps in eight conditions (Land BW, BW+10%, BW+20%, BW+30%; Chest-height water BW, BW+10%, BW+20%, BW+30%). Peak power (PP), relative peak power (rPP), mean power (MP), and relative mean power (rMP) were examined for all jumping conditions. A 2 (sport team) by 2 (environment) by 2 (load) repeated measures ANOVA was used to evaluate main effects and interactions. Results: PP, rPP, MP, and rMP were not significantly different for increased loads within the same environment. When compared to jumps performed on land, all four variables were significantly higher for water conditions (p<0.001). Mean values for each environment were 3,845.9 ± 30.2 W, 60.4 ± 0.5 W/kg, 1,605.6 ± 54.1 W, and 25.2 ± 0.8 W/kg for PP, rPP, MP, and rMP respectively for land, and 6,829.3 ± 405.7 W, 326.9 ± 18.8 W/kg, 2,659.8 ± 118.8 W, and 126.9 ± 5.5 for water. Sport team affiliation had a significant effect for rPP, MP, and rMP (p<0.03), and an interaction effect for environment*sport was also present for all four variables tested (p<0.01). An aquatic environment provides resistance that can result in higher power production than on land, making it ideal training environment for athletes.