Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Departmental Honors




Self-regulated learning (SRL) is a cyclical process that motivates students and facilitates achievement in a variety of domains (Wang, 2013). It entails several processes, such as planning, setting goals, using learning strategies, self-monitoring, reflecting, and holding adaptive motivational beliefs. Moreover, SRL can be developed through interventions and classroom practices. However, there is a shortage of trained interventionists. Teachers can also use a variety of classroom practices to develop students’ SRL skills. A framework of practices, known as the Settings, Events, and Exchanges (SEE) framework, was developed to organize these classroom practices for teachers (Callan et al., 2020).

The practices in this framework include (a) the creation of a setting that is conducive to SRL, (b) student-teacher exchanges that facilitate the development of SRL, and (c) events that allow students the chance to reflect on their learning. Specifically, teachers can foster effective learning settings by developing supportive student-teacher relationships, implementing routines and clear participation structures, providing collaborative learning opportunities, and encouraging the use of adaptive help-seeking strategies. Exchanges that support SRL include the use of explicit instructions, modeling, SRL feedback, prompts, and connections made between the use of SRL strategies and academic success. Finally, events that can facilitate SRL include multiple opportunities to succeed, long-term learning opportunities, tasks that are both at an appropriate challenge level as well as supportive of student autonomy, self-assessment, peer co-learning, and the use of SRL worksheets (Callan et al., 2020).

The SEE framework was developed to support SRL development in traditional, in person classrooms. In light of the fact that online learning elicits a greater need for SRL, the purpose of this presentation is to examine which SEE framework practices do and do not have empirical support within online learning environments. Doing so provides practical support for teachers and identifies research gaps for researchers.



Faculty Mentor

Greg Callan

Departmental Honors Advisor

Crissa Levin