World Medical and Health Policy
This study aimed to examine multiple factors associated with happiness from the perspective of gender difference among a middle‐aged Japanese population. A total of 865 participants (male = 344, female = 521) aged 40–64 years were divided into two groups (high and low) by their self‐reported level of happiness. Logistic regression analysis by gender was carried out. In men, high levels of happiness were significantly correlated with living with spouse, occupation, enough sleep, leading a normal life, and regular checkups; while low levels of happiness were significantly correlated with smoking and having two or more diseases. In women, low levels of happiness were significantly correlated with caring for a family member. Our data suggested that the factors relevant to happiness levels might vary between men and women among middle‐aged people in Japan. To increase the nation's level of happiness, the Japanese government must implement extended social services and policymaking, to alleviate caregivers’ burdens, especially among Japanese women.
Moriyama, Yoko; Tamiya, Nanako; Kawachi, Nobuyuki; and Miyairi, Maya, "What Makes Super‐Aged Nations Happier? Exploring Critical Factors of Happiness Among Middle‐Aged Men and Women in Japan" (2018). Kinesiology and Health Science Faculty Publications. Paper 490.