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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


Pest birds cause substantial and costly damage to crops. Managing birds is complex because (1) they are highly mobile, (2) they habituate quickly to many deterrents, (3) some species provide benefits to farmers by deterring and consuming pest insects, rodents, and other birds, and (4) birds are highly valued by many people. Thus, farmers have many issues to consider when developing bird management strategies. Here I discuss recent work indicating that farmer adoption of sustainable agricultural practices is more likely when practices are effective, clear guidelines for implementation are available, implementation is relatively easy, and when practices are linked, in farmers’ minds and logistically, with other farm management practices. This manuscript draws together information about these factors for common bird management tactics to aid in the development of sustainable bird management strategies by farmers and the development of education programs for farmers by extension personnel and researchers. Such strategies will necessarily involve combinations of tactics, following the framework of Integrated Pest Management.