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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


Wild boar (Sus scrofa) is now an important species of wild ungulates in Central Europe. Next to conflicts of wild boar with agriculture, the main threat of wild boar presence lies in the expansion of African swine fever across Europe. The regulation of the wild boar population is complicated by the high reproduction rate and intelligent behavior of the species, which limits hunting effectiveness. We analyzed the spatial behavior of wild boar in an environment with a lack of natural food resources. The study area consisted of a forest complex (1,283 ha) with 2 areas. In the “risk” area, wild boar were intensively hunted, and in the “refuge” area, the hunting pressure was much lower. The distribution of wild boar was not regular within the study area. The wild boar density was higher in the refuge area than in the risk area. Even in times of food shortage, wild boar avoided the area where obtaining quality food was associated with a high risk of being killed. The conclusion applies to the winter season and an environment where the wild boar can become sufficiently fattened in the crop fields in the summer. For effective control of wild boar populations, it is therefore essential to organize the coordination of hunting pressure evenly in large areas.