Physics of Fluids
American Institute of Physics inc.
When a water droplet impacts a free surface with sufficient velocity, the momentum transfer results in the formation of a hemispherical cavity expanding radially from the point of impact.1 This cavity continues to expand until the kinetic energy is completely converted to potential energy (Fig. 1(a)).2 Pumphrey and Elmore equated the potential energy of this subsurface cavity with the kinetic energy of the impacting droplet, concluding that the magnitude of the cavity radius is proportional to impact velocity and droplet diameter.3
Hurd, Randy Craig; Fanning, T.; Pan, Zhao; Maybey, C.; Bodily, Kyle G.; Hacking, Kip Schafer; Spiers, Nathan B.; and Truscott, Tadd T., "Matryoshka cavity" (2015). Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications. Paper 76.