Document Type

Conference Paper

Journal/Book Title/Conference

31st AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference


San Diego, CA


American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

Publication Date



Closed-form relations are presented for estimating ratios of the induced-drag and lift coefficients acting on a wing in ground effect to those acting on the same wing outside the influence of ground effect. The closed-form relations for these ground-effect influence ratios were developed by correlating results obtained from numerical solutions to Prandtl's lifting-line theory. Results show that these influence ratios are not unique functions of the ratio of wing height to wingspan, as is sometimes suggested in the literature. These ground-effect influence ratios also depend on the wing planform, aspect ratio, and lift coefficient.