Scanning Microscopy


The early uses of Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) with MeV ions are reviewed. The transformation of STIM energy-loss images into maps of areal density is discussed, and is illustrated with images of a fruit fly head (Drosophila melanogaster). Freeze-dried male heads are transparent to 4-MeV protons in the dorsal and frontal directions, but in the sagittal direction the brain is opaque. STIM with molecular ions is shown to be useful for increasing contrast in low density areas. For recording registered STIM and PIXE images without changing accelerator parameters, apertures are used to accomplish the required change in beam intensity (a factor of 105). Molecular ions are used to assess contamination of the microbeam by scattered ions. Pixel by pixel ratios of x-ray intensity to areal density are taken to obtain maps of element concentrations. Calcium and iron maps are shown. Inner parts of the fly head are clearly seen in the concentration maps. The PIXE exposure caused differential displacements of inner parts of the head by 15 μm or less. Weight loss during the PIXE exposure was measured to be 3%.

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