A survey is given of recent advances in the use of high-energy proton backscattering spectroscopy or proton energy loss spectroscopy (PELS) under the glancing incidence geometry for monolayer-sensitive analysis. Two theories of the energy loss involved in the PELS are described, based on the continuous and impact parameter dependent slowing down models. The latter theory leads to the azimuthal angle dependence of the energy loss. It is also shown that this technique is applicable to underlayer composition analysis
"Proton Energy Loss Spectroscopy for Surface Monolayer Analysis,"
Scanning Microscopy: Vol. 1
, Article 11.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/microscopy/vol1/iss4/11