A Monte Carlo study of backscattering of kilovolt electrons in solids, a process of primary importance in electron microscopy and surface analytical techniques, is carried out. Simulations have been performed using the general-purpose simulation code PENELOPE (an acronym for "Penetration and ENErgy LOss of Positrons and Electrons"), which generates electron-photon showers in arbitrary materials. A systematic comparison of results from PENELOPE with available experimental data, and with results from simulations with a much more sophisticated code, is given for electron beams with energies between 2.5 and 60 keV and elemental solids with atomic numbers Z = 4 to 92. It is concluded that PENELOPE gives a reliable description of the backscattering process, even for relatively low electron energies and thin targets.
Acosta, E.; Coleoni, E.; Castellano, G.; Riveros, J. A.; Fernández-Varea, J. M.; and Salvat, F.
"Monte Carlo Simulation of Electron Backscattering in Solids Using a General-Purpose Computer Code,"
Scanning Microscopy: Vol. 10
, Article 2.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/microscopy/vol10/iss3/2