The state of the art in Monte Carlo simulations of scanning electron microscope (SEM) signals is reviewed. Two Monte Carlo computer codes were written to simulate the transmitted-, backscattered-, and secondary-electron signals from targets in a scanning electron microscope. The first, MONSEL-11, is applied to semi-infinite lines produced lithographically on multi-layer substrates. The second, MONSEL-111, is an extension to fully three-dimensional targets. Results for a 1 μm step, etched in a silicon substrate are compared with experimental data. The comparisons show that it is possible to obtain edge locations to an uncertainty of less than 10 nm. Simulations were performed for photoresist lines on a silicon substrate coated with a layer of photoresist. Techniques were derived for simulating signals for finite beam diameter from those for zero beam diameter, and for extracting signals approximating zero beam diameter from those with finite beam diameter. Approaches were formulated for efficient use of the Monte Carlo codes.
Lowney, Jeremiah R.
"Application of Monte Carlo Simulations to Critical Dimension Metrology in a Scanning Electron Microscope,"
Scanning Microscopy: Vol. 10
, Article 5.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/microscopy/vol10/iss3/5