Voltage contrast varies if the specimen voltage changes within the secondary electron transit time through the specimen electric field. This effect would affect the time resolution in stroboscopic scanning electron microscopy. The method to calculate the transit time effect that was described in a previous paper is reviewed. The calculated results agreed well with the experiment in which a specially designed specimen is used to estimate the applied voltage as exactly as possible.
Nakamae, K.; Fujioka, H.; and Ura, K.
"Transit Time Effect on Voltage Contrast in the Stroboscopic Scanning Electron Microscope,"
Scanning Microscopy: Vol. 2
, Article 17.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/microscopy/vol2/iss2/17