Scanning Microscopy


This review begins with a summary of the disproof of the membrane-pump theory and the alternative theory of the living cell, the association-induction (AI) hypothesis. Being alive in the AI hypothesis represents the maintenance of a high (negative) energy-low entropy state in which the two major components K+ and water of the living cell are closely associated with the third major component of the living cells, proteins. K+ is adsorbed singly on 𝜷-and γ-carboxyl groups and the bulk of cell water in multilayers on the exposed NHCO groups of fully extended polypeptide chains of cell proteins. These adsorptions account for both the constancy of cell K+ and cell water per unit of cell proteins. ATP plays a key role in the maintenance of the cooperatively linked protein-ion-water assembly at the living state by its adsorption on key protein site and exercises the controlling influence through its strong inductive effects. Water polarized in multilayers demonstrates size-dependent exclusion of solutes, e.g., large (hydrated) Na+ is excluded from water in living cells or model systems while smaller urea that fits into the dynamic water structure is not excluded. The confirmation of the polarized multilayer theory of cell water by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), dielectric, neutron scattering, and other studies not only reverses the conventional belief of the existence of the cell water as normal liquid water; it also gives a new definition to colloids.

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