The backscattered electron signal can be detected using a solid state detector system. Because this signal is affected by the surface topography it is necessary to determine the optimal detection condition for a registration mark detection in the electron-beam lithography and for an automatic topographical surface reconstruction.
The BSE signal from surface marks has been measured using semiconductor detectors with a small collection angle. Calculations of the BSE signal have been carried out by means of a simplified model of electron backscattering. The signal shape depends on some parameters of the mark profile, such as length, height and inclination angle of mark facets. However the effect of the detection angle on the BSE signal is more fundamental.
Kaczmarek, D. and Czyżewski, Z.
"Signal of Backscattered Electrons From Multiple Marks in Dependence on Mark Profile,"
Scanning Microscopy: Vol. 2
, Article 7.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/microscopy/vol2/iss3/7