This review gives a detailed survey of the range of fascinating surface features which develop under growth or erosion conditions under the combined influence of thermal and more energetic atomic particle fluxes. Collisionally induced atomic ejection and migration, and thermally and radiation induced atom and defect diffusion processes are outlined and their relevance to topographic initiation and evolution explored. A range of experimental observations of surface feature elaboration is discussed from net growth to net erosion conditions and models for their explanation are considered. It is concluded that while much data have been accumulated, much of these have been in so diverse experimental conditions that precise modelling in atomic terms is difficult and generalisations are treacherous. A clear need for structured, extensive studies exists with very precise parameter definition and control.
Carter, G.; Katardjiev, I. V.; Nobes, M. J.; and Whitton, J. L.
"Topographic Evolution in the Atomic Scale Growth and Erosion Continuum,"
Scanning Microscopy: Vol. 2
, Article 9.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/microscopy/vol2/iss3/9