Techniques to analyse the orientation of particulate materials as observed in the scanning electron microscope are reviewed in this paper. Emphasis is placed on digital imaging, processing, and analysis methods, but many secondary electron images are not amenable to traditional image processing as adequate thresholding is often difficult to achieve. Evaluation of the intensity gradient at each pixel offers an alternative approach, and this method is described in detail including the latest developments to generalize the technique. Practical points in the acquisition, processing and analysis of the images are considered and several images, including both synthetically generated and actual back-scattered images of soil particle arrangements are presented. A discussion of methods to display the results is included as are possible future developments.
Tovey, N. K.; Smart, P.; Hounslow, M. W.; and Leng, X. L.
"Practical Aspects of Automatic Orientation Analysis of Micrographs,"
Scanning Microscopy: Vol. 3
, Article 8.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/microscopy/vol3/iss3/8