Scanning Microscopy


Bioinert materials (e.g., alumina implants) and bioactive ceramics (e.g., calcium phosphate ceramics, glass -ceramics) are now extensively used in dentistry. However, the physico-chemical interactions at the interfaces between the implant and the host bone are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to define the interactions at these interfaces using a combination of analytical techniques: light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, X-ray microradiography, X-ray diffraction, and infrared specstroscopy.

Bioinert (pure titanium) and bioactive materials (hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate and biphasic calcium phosphate) were implanted in dogs, and the implants, recovered after various periods of implantation, were analyzed.

The results demonstrated the following: the bioactive materials interact with the biological fluid and the living tissues in a specific manner. This process includes biodissolution/biodegradation, apatite crystal precipitation, and bone formation on the implant surface at the expense of the material. The results are discussed according to the limitations of the analytical techniques used.

The medical and chemical word COALESCENCE is suggested to describe the specific interactions of bioactive materials and INTERACTION for the phenomenon of physical contact of the bioinert materials with the host bone.

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