This paper presents the results of computer simulation studies into the respective contributions of the potential barrier, the off-normal incidence injection of secondary electrons (SEs) into the retarding field and analyser geometry on Types I and II local field error voltages for a practical 20 mm wide planar retarding field energy analyser. Results show that the error voltage component due to the off-normal incidence injection effect of SEs into the retarding field dominates the Type I local field error. For type II LFE, the error voltage component due to analyser geometry effect is the higher contributing factor. The presence of a neighbouring electrode voltage tends to draw SEs away from the central axis of the energy analyser, thus causing the electron trajectories to be more sensitive to the influence of the analyser geometry.
Chan, D. S. H.; Low, T. S.; and Phang, J. C. H.
"Error Voltage Components in Quantitative Voltage Contrast Measurement Systems,"
Scanning Microscopy: Vol. 5
, Article 6.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/microscopy/vol5/iss2/6