Ten salivary stones in the human submandibular gland were investigated by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction analyses. The stones usually showed a lamellar pattern. SEM observations revealed cubical, plate-like, granular, small and large granules, polyhedral or globular structures in these stones. By X-ray powder diffraction analysis, the main constituents of salivary stones were found to be apatite and whitlockite. SEM-EDS analyses showed that Ca and P were the major elements, frequently accompanied by Mg and S, and less frequently by Na, Al, Si, Cl, K, Fe, Cu and Zn. Ca/P molar ratios ranged from 1.00 to 2.00 with the average of 1.53, showing two maxima of about 1.50 and 1.60. The Ca/P molar ratio of about 1.50 corresponded to the value of whitlockite. The Ca/P molar ratio of 1.60 corresponded approximately to the value of apatite.
Mishima, H.; Yamamoto, H.; and Sakae, T.
"Scanning Electron Microscopy - Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy and X-Ray Diffraction Analyses of Human Salivary Stones,"
Scanning Microscopy: Vol. 6
, Article 14.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/microscopy/vol6/iss2/14