Scanning Microscopy


This paper presents simulation models for quantifying the voltage contrast, cathodoluminescence and indirect specimen charging phenomena in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The voltage contrast model comprises an electric field computation program using the finite-element approach, and a secondary electron trajectory tracking algorithm employing a linear electric field assumption. This trajectory tracking algorithm is more accurate than the conventional electron trajectory tracking algorithms which make use of a constant electric field assumption within each computation step. Using this model, results of qualitative voltage contrast effects on secondary electron trajectories in the specimen chamber of the SEM are shown. This model can also be used for quantitative voltage studies for designing low error voltage energy analysers. The cathodoluminescence (CL) model consists of programs for simulating the electron beam-specimen interaction via Monte Carlo analysis, excess carrier generation and distribution, and optical losses of the CL emission. This model has been used to simulate the CL intensity as a function of surface recombination velocity, diffusion length, and absorption coefficient. A model has also been developed to simulate indirect charging of specimens in the SEM. This model uses the finite-element method to solve for the self-consistent electric field due to the imposed boundary conditions, trapped and moving charges. Secondary electrons are tracked using the trajectory tracking scheme developed.

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