Serum retinal levels were studied in : (a) 95, 56 and 43 normal subjects belonging to lower, middle and upper socio-economic groups respectively, (b) 35 adult males suffering from night blindness, (c) 27 subjects with low retinal levels, (d) 8 retinal deficient subjects (e) 17 male infants suffering from overt retinal deficiency, (f) 43 radiologically confirmed stone patients and (g) age and sex matched controls (infants 20; adults 120). The subjects included in groups b to f were clinically and radiologically examined for stone disease. Some inhibitors and promoters of stone disease were estimated in urine in groups b to g. It was found that 68% of subjects in lower socio-economic group had serum retinal levels between 10 and 19 ug%, and 4% below 10 ug%, but none of them showed any symptoms of retinal deficiency. The subjects included in groups b to e did not show any significant difference in their urine chemistry although oxalate excretion was slightly but not significantly higher in comparison to controls. None of them showed radiological evidence of urinary stones. Thus, our results do not support an association between retinal deficiency and urolithiasis in the population studied.
Singh, P. P. and Kiran, R.
"Retinol Deficiency and Urinary Stone Disease: Clinical Evidence is Missing,"
Scanning Microscopy: Vol. 7
, Article 48.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/microscopy/vol7/iss1/48