Atomic resolution images of the (010) surface of a divanadiun pentoxide (V2O5) single crystal were successfully obtained by the use of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM).
The images of the filled states at sample bias voltage, Vs = -2 V and the empty states at Vs = +2 V correspond to oxygen and vanadium ions, respectively.
As for the vanadium ion sites, an additional peak of the electronic states at the conduction band edge due to the defects of vanadyl oxygen ions was found in the normalized conductance spectrum through the tunneling spectroscopy (TS) measurement.
Oshio, Takanori; Sakai, Yoshiyuki; Moriya, Tohru; and Ehara, Shaw
"A Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Study of Vanadium Oxide,"
Scanning Microscopy: Vol. 7
, Article 5.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/microscopy/vol7/iss1/5